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foreign reserves

Page history last edited by Brian D Butler 9 years, 9 months ago

This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

 

 

To pay debts?

"Most governments refrain from using international reserves to pay debt because it fuels inflation by freeing up budget money for other expenses, said Claudio Loser, a former International Monetary Fund official who now runs the Centennial Latin America research company based in Washington."....."The central bank chief has defended official inflation data from criticism by politicians and economists, including Vice President Julio Cobos, who say prices are rising at more than double the rate published by the government. Prices rose 11.1 percent in August from a year earlier, the government said. Former central bank president and opposition lawmaker Alfonso Prat-Gay said inflation is running at 25 percent per year, the fastest in the world after Venezuela."   Source:  Bloomberg.com

 

 

2010:

 

"The world's leading holders of foreign exchange reserves are China, with $2.4 trillion worth, and Japan, with $1 trillion worth. About 70% of such funds are held in US dollars, mostly in the form of low-yielding US Treasury securities. Many commentators, top Obama Administration economics adviser Larry Summers most prominent among them, have suggested that such funds are invested over-conservatively, resulting in opportunity costs on the order of 6%....Japan's reserves now amount to 20% of gross domestic product. 

 

Alan Greenspan suggested back in 1999, in the wake of the Asia crisis, that prudent reserve levels should roughly cover a country's total short-term external debt. In Japan's case, that would be about $493bn. This means that Japan's excess reserves are currently on the order of $530bn, or 10% of GDP, vastly more than even extreme prudence could merit."

 

Read more from CFR.org

 

 

 

Data from Dec 2007

( old...sorry)...anyone know where to get latest data?

 

Rank
Country
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Date of Information
1
China $ 1,534,000,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
2
Japan $ 954,100,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
3
Russia $ 476,400,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
4
India $ 275,000,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
5
Taiwan $ 275,000,000,000 31 December 2007
6
Korea, South $ 262,200,000,000 31 December 2007
7
Brazil $ 180,300,000,000 31 December 2007
8
Singapore $ 163,000,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
9
Hong Kong $ 152,700,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
10
Germany $ 136,200,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
11
France $ 115,700,000,000 2006 est.
12
Algeria $ 110,600,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
13
Malaysia $ 101,100,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
14
Italy $ 94,330,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
15
Thailand $ 87,460,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
16
Mexico $ 87,190,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
17
Libya $ 79,600,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
18
United Arab Emirates $ 77,240,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
19
Turkey $ 76,510,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
20
Switzerland $ 75,370,000,000 2006 est.
21
United States $ 70,570,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
22
Iran $ 69,200,000,000 2007 est.
23
Poland $ 65,750,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
24
Norway $ 60,840,000,000 2006 est.
25
United Kingdom $ 57,300,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
26
Indonesia $ 56,920,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
27
Nigeria $ 51,330,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
28
Argentina $ 46,120,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
29
Canada $ 41,080,000,000 2007 est.
30
Romania $ 39,960,000,000 31 December 2007
31
Czech Republic $ 34,590,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
32
Denmark $ 34,320,000,000 2006 est.
33
Saudi Arabia $ 34,010,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
34
Philippines $ 33,750,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
35
Venezuela $ 33,480,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
36
South Africa $ 32,940,000,000 31 December 2007
37
Ukraine $ 32,480,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
38
Egypt $ 31,370,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
39
Sweden $ 31,040,000,000 2006 est.
40
Israel $ 28,520,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
41
Peru $ 27,780,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
42
Netherlands $ 26,980,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
43
Australia $ 26,910,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
44
Iraq $ 25,660,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
45
Morocco $ 24,720,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
46
Hungary $ 24,050,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
47
Vietnam $ 23,870,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
48
Colombia $ 20,950,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
49
Lebanon $ 20,550,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
50
Spain $ 19,050,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
51
Slovakia $ 18,980,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
52
Austria $ 18,220,000,000 2006 est.
53
Kazakhstan $ 17,630,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
54
Bulgaria $ 17,380,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
55
New Zealand $ 17,250,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
56
Chile $ 16,840,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
57
Kuwait $ 16,780,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
58
Belgium $ 16,510,000,000 2007 est.
59
Pakistan $ 15,690,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
60
Serbia $ 14,220,000,000 2007 est.
61
Croatia $ 13,670,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
62
Portugal $ 11,550,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
63
Angola $ 11,200,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
64
Botswana $ 9,790,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
65
Qatar $ 9,752,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
66
Oman $ 9,524,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
67
Finland $ 8,385,000,000 2007
68
Jordan $ 7,929,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
69
Tunisia $ 7,854,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
70
Yemen $ 7,760,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
71
Lithuania $ 7,721,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
72
Uzbekistan $ 6,750,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
73
Trinidad and Tobago $ 6,745,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
74
Cyprus $ 6,507,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
75
Syria $ 6,046,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
76
Latvia $ 5,758,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
77
Slovenia $ 5,682,000,000 30 September 2007 est.
78
Bolivia $ 5,318,000,000 31 October 2007
79
Bangladesh $ 5,278,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
80
Turkmenistan $ 5,172,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
81
Bosnia and Herzegovina $ 4,525,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
82
Azerbaijan $ 4,273,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
83
Belarus $ 4,266,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
84
Cuba $ 4,247,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
85
Guatemala $ 4,139,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
86
Uruguay $ 4,121,000,000 December 2007 est.
87
Costa Rica $ 4,114,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
88
Bahrain $ 4,101,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
89
Equatorial Guinea $ 3,846,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
90
Malta $ 3,798,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
91
Greece $ 3,658,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
92
Sri Lanka $ 3,644,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
93
Ecuador $ 3,521,000,000 30 November 2007 est.
94
Kenya $ 3,355,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
95
Estonia $ 3,270,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
96
Cameroon $ 2,932,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
97
Tanzania $ 2,910,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
98
Dominican Republic $ 2,562,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
99
Uganda $ 2,560,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
100
Honduras $ 2,546,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
101
Cote d'Ivoire $ 2,519,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
102
Paraguay $ 2,463,000,000 31 December 2007
103
Iceland $ 2,436,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
104
Macedonia $ 2,265,000,000 31 December 2007
105
Burma $ 2,262,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
106
Congo, Republic of the $ 2,206,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
107
Ghana $ 2,204,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
108
El Salvador $ 2,199,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
109
Albania $ 2,162,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
110
Cambodia $ 2,143,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
111
Papua New Guinea $ 2,087,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
112
Panama $ 1,935,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
113
Jamaica $ 1,905,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
114
Mauritius $ 1,822,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
115
Senegal $ 1,660,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
116
Armenia $ 1,657,000,000 December 2007 est.
117
Mozambique $ 1,445,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
118
Sudan $ 1,378,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
119
Georgia $ 1,361,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
120
Moldova $ 1,334,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
121
Ethiopia $ 1,294,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
122
Gabon $ 1,238,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
123
Benin $ 1,209,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
124
Kyrgyzstan $ 1,177,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
125
Nicaragua $ 1,103,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
126
Zambia $ 1,090,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
127
Burkina Faso $ 1,029,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
128
Chad $ 969,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
129
Ireland $ 926,200,000 2006 est.
130
Namibia $ 896,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
131
Lesotho $ 852,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
132
Madagascar $ 846,700,000 31 December 2007 est.
133
Swaziland $ 762,700,000 31 December 2007 est.
134
Barbados $ 620,000,000 2007
135
Rwanda $ 552,800,000 31 December 2007 est.
136
Laos $ 540,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
137
Haiti $ 444,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
138
Togo $ 438,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
139
Cape Verde $ 398,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
140
Guyana $ 313,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
141
Suriname $ 263,300,000 2006
142
Tajikistan $ 242,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
143
Malawi $ 217,200,000 31 December 2007 est.
144
Luxembourg $ 205,500,000 2006 est.
145
Burundi $ 177,100,000 31 December 2007 est.
146
Gambia, The $ 142,800,000 31 December 2007 est.
147
Zimbabwe $ 120,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
148
Guinea $ 119,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
149
Belize $ 109,000,000 31 December 2007 est.
150
Samoa $ 70,150,000 FY03/04
151
Tonga $ 40,830,000 yearend, FY04/05
152
Seychelles $ 40,800,000 31 December 2007 est.
153
Vanuatu $ 40,540,000 2003
154
Sao Tome and Principe $ 34,600,000 31 December 2007 est.
155
Eritrea $ 23,000,000 31 December 2007 est.

 

 

 

 

even Older data (to see changes...)

 

 

 

Rank
Country
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Date of Information
1
China $ 1,073,000,000,000 2006 est.
2
Japan $ 881,000,000,000 2006 est.
3
Russia $ 303,700,000,000 2006 est.
4
Taiwan $ 270,800,000,000 2006 est.
5
Korea, South $ 239,000,000,000 2006 est.
6
India $ 176,100,000,000 2006 est.
7
Singapore $ 136,300,000,000 2006 est.
8
Hong Kong $ 133,200,000,000 2006 est.
9
Germany $ 111,600,000,000 2006 est.
10
France $ 98,240,000,000 2006 est.
11
Brazil $ 87,270,000,000 January 2007 est.
12
Malaysia $ 82,200,000,000 2006 est.
13
Algeria $ 78,210,000,000 2006 est.
14
Mexico $ 76,330,000,000 2006 est.
15
Italy $ 75,770,000,000 2006 est.
16
Thailand $ 66,980,000,000 2006 est.
17
United States $ 65,890,000,000 2006 est.
18
Switzerland $ 64,500,000,000 2006 est.
19
Turkey $ 63,420,000,000 2006 est.
20
Libya $ 59,480,000,000 2006 est.
21
Iran $ 58,460,000,000 2006 est.
22
Norway $ 56,840,000,000 2006 est.
23
Australia $ 55,080,000,000 2006 est.
24
Poland $ 48,480,000,000 2006 est.
25
United Kingdom $ 47,040,000,000 2006 est.
26
Indonesia $ 42,420,000,000 2006 est.
27
Nigeria $ 42,300,000,000 2006 est.
28
Venezuela $ 36,670,000,000 2006 est.
29
Canada $ 35,060,000,000 2006 est.
30
Argentina $ 32,030,000,000 2006 est.
31
Czech Republic $ 31,220,000,000 2006 est.
32
Denmark $ 31,080,000,000 2006 est.
33
Romania $ 30,210,000,000 2006 est.
34
Israel $ 29,150,000,000 2006 est.
35
Sweden $ 28,020,000,000 2006 est.
36
Saudi Arabia $ 27,770,000,000 2006 est.
37
United Arab Emirates $ 27,620,000,000 2006 est.
38
South Africa $ 25,590,000,000 2006 est.
39
Egypt $ 25,580,000,000 2006 est.
40
Netherlands $ 23,900,000,000 2006 est.
41
Philippines $ 22,970,000,000 2006 est.
42
Ukraine $ 22,360,000,000 2006 est.
43
Hungary $ 21,590,000,000 2006 est.
44
Morocco $ 20,790,000,000 2006 est.
45
Iraq $ 19,660,000,000 2006 est.
46
Chile $ 19,400,000,000 2006 est.
47
Spain $ 19,340,000,000 2006 est.
48
Lebanon $ 19,180,000,000 2006 est.
49
Kazakhstan $ 19,130,000,000 2006 est.
50
Peru $ 17,440,000,000 2006 est.
51
Colombia $ 15,440,000,000 2006 est.
52
New Zealand $ 14,070,000,000 2006 est.
53
Vietnam $ 13,590,000,000 2006 est.
54
Belgium $ 13,440,000,000 2006 est.
55
Slovakia $ 13,360,000,000 2006 est.
56
Austria $ 12,910,000,000 2006 est.
57
Pakistan $ 12,820,000,000 2006 est.
58
Kuwait $ 12,680,000,000 2006 est.
59
Bulgaria $ 11,780,000,000 2006 est.
60
Croatia $ 11,490,000,000 2006 est.
61
Portugal $ 9,883,000,000 2006 est.
62
Angola $ 8,599,000,000 2006 est.
63
Botswana $ 7,992,000,000 2006 est.
64
Yemen $ 7,545,000,000 2006 est.
65
Finland $ 7,499,000,000 2006 est.
66
Slovenia $ 7,139,000,000 2006 est.
67
Jordan $ 6,979,000,000 2006 est.
68
Tunisia $ 6,777,000,000 2006 est.
69
Trinidad and Tobago $ 6,609,000,000 2006 est.
70
Lithuania $ 5,773,000,000 2006 est.
71
Syria $ 5,715,000,000 2006 est.
72
Qatar $ 5,393,000,000 2006 est.
73
Serbia $ 5,350,000,000 2005 est.
74
Oman $ 5,014,000,000 2006 est.
75
Cyprus $ 4,613,000,000 2006 est.
76
Latvia $ 4,510,000,000 2006 est.
77
Uzbekistan $ 4,300,000,000 2006 est.
78
Guatemala $ 3,924,000,000 2006 est.
79
Bangladesh $ 3,877,000,000 2006 est.
80
Turkmenistan $ 3,601,000,000 2006 est.
81
Cuba $ 3,447,000,000 2006 est.
82
Bosnia and Herzegovina $ 3,372,000,000 2006 est.
83
Bolivia $ 3,194,000,000 2006 est.
84
Costa Rica $ 3,115,000,000 2006 est.
85
Uruguay $ 3,091,000,000 2006 est.
86
Equatorial Guinea $ 3,067,000,000 2006 est.
87
Malta $ 2,981,000,000 2006 est.
88
Sri Lanka $ 2,948,000,000 2006 est.
89
Greece $ 2,850,000,000 2006 est.
90
Bahrain $ 2,818,000,000 2006 est.
91
Estonia $ 2,792,000,000 2006 est.
92
Honduras $ 2,642,000,000 2006 est.
93
Azerbaijan $ 2,500,000,000 2006 est.
94
Kenya $ 2,416,000,000 2006 est.
95
Iceland $ 2,342,000,000 2006 est.
96
Jamaica $ 2,318,000,000 2006 est.
97
Tanzania $ 2,281,000,000 2006 est.
98
Ghana $ 2,268,000,000 2006 est.
99
Dominican Republic $ 2,127,000,000 2006 est.
100
Ecuador $ 2,023,000,000 2006 est.
101
El Salvador $ 1,899,000,000 2006 est.
102
Macedonia $ 1,889,000,000 2006 est.
103
Congo, Republic of the $ 1,848,000,000 2006 est.
104
Albania $ 1,813,000,000 2006 est.
105
Uganda $ 1,811,000,000 2006 est.
106
Cote d'Ivoire $ 1,798,000,000 2006 est.
107
Cameroon $ 1,735,000,000 2006 est.
108
Paraguay $ 1,702,000,000 2006 est.
109
Sudan $ 1,660,000,000 2006 est.
110
Papua New Guinea $ 1,427,000,000 2006 est.
111
Cambodia $ 1,411,000,000 2006 est.
112
Panama $ 1,335,000,000 2006 est.
113
Senegal $ 1,334,000,000 2006 est.
114
Mauritius $ 1,301,000,000 2006 est.
115
Burma $ 1,248,000,000 2006 est.
116
Mozambique $ 1,156,000,000 2006 est.
117
Gabon $ 1,122,000,000 2006 est.
118
Belarus $ 1,099,000,000 2006 est.
119
Armenia $ 1,072,000,000 2006 est.
120
Georgia $ 930,800,000 2006 est.
121
Nicaragua $ 921,900,000 2006 est.
122
Benin $ 912,000,000 2006 est.
123
Ethiopia $ 832,700,000 2006 est.
124
Ireland $ 831,900,000 2006 est.
125
Kyrgyzstan $ 817,000,000 2006 est.
126
Moldova $ 775,500,000 2006 est.
127
Zambia $ 719,700,000 2006 est.
128
Lesotho $ 706,000,000 2006 est.
129
Chad $ 632,200,000 2006 est.
130
Madagascar $ 574,000,000 2006 est.
131
Burkina Faso $ 554,900,000 2006 est.
132
Namibia $ 449,600,000 2006 est.
133
Rwanda $ 439,700,000 2006 est.
134
Togo $ 375,000,000 2006 est.
135
Swaziland $ 372,500,000 2006 est.
136
Laos $ 334,300,000 2006 est.
137
Guyana $ 279,600,000 2006 est.
138
Luxembourg $ 265,100,000 2006 est.
139
Cape Verde $ 254,000,000 2006 est.
140
Haiti $ 253,900,000 2006 est.
141
Tajikistan $ 203,800,000 2006 est.
142
Zimbabwe $ 140,000,000 2006 est.
143
Malawi $ 134,300,000 2006 est.
144
Burundi $ 131,100,000 2006 est.
145
Gambia, The $ 121,000,000 2006 est.
146
Belize $ 113,700,000 2006 est.
147
Seychelles $ 112,900,000 2006 est.
148
Guinea $ 73,500,000 2006 est.
149
Samoa $ 70,150,000 FY03/04
150
Tonga $ 40,830,000 yearend, FY04/05
151
Vanuatu $ 40,540,000 2003
152
Sao Tome and Principe $ 36,000,000 2006 est.
153
Eritrea $ 25,000,000 2006 est.

 

 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2188rank.html

 

 

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