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immigration

Page history last edited by Brian D Butler 9 years, 2 months ago

see also:

 

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Cultural Tolerance

 

"Your car is Japanese. Your pizza is Italian. Your potato is German. Your wine is Chilean. Your democracy is Greek. Your coffee is Colombian. Your tea is Tamil. Your watch is Swiss. Your shirt is Indian. Your shoes are Thai. Your electronics are Chinese. Your vodka... is.....Russian. And ...you complain that your neighbor is an immigrant? "

 

read more about  culture

 

 

US immigration 

 

Is the US immigration policy hurting long-run negative implications ?

 

Silicon Vally having a hard time recruiting?

 

 

Reverse "brain-drain"?

 

a growing body of evidence indicates that skilled foreign immigrants create jobs for Americans and boost our national competitiveness. More than 52% of Silicon Valley’s startups during the recent tech boom were started by foreign-born entrepreneurs. Foreign-national researchers have contributed to more than 25% of our global patents, developed some of our break-through technologies, and they helped make Silicon Valley the world’s leading tech center. Foreign-born workers comprise almost a quarter of all the U.S. science and engineering workforce and 47% of science and engineering workers who have PhDs. It is very possible that some of the smart Indians who sat in the room with me holding their hand up on Columbus Day will start the next Google or Apple. Many of them will build companies which employ thousands. But the jobs will be in Hyderbad or Pune, not Silicon Valley.

 

read more from TechCrunch

great research here:  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=990152

 

 

Importance of immigrants for startups *and development:

 

great article from TechCrunch:

 

 

startupsVlprs

It is clear that when controlling for population there is a strong positive correlation at the state level between the number of naturalized citizens and the number of startups. Immigration reform that opens America’s borders more would likely reflect the above data and add to America’s illustrious entrepreneurial history. Immigration reform that specifically targets founders, engineers or PhDs would be even more effective.

 

read more here:

 

 

Tech companies and immigration: H1B

 

Harvard research fellow Vivek Wadhwa reports that immigrants have founded more than half of all Silicon Valley start-ups in the past decade. These immigrant-led, American tech companies employed more than 450,000 workers and grossed $52 billion in 2005. For U.S. companies to employ a highly specialized foreign worker, the employee must hold an H-1B visa, but current law allows for the issuing of only 65,000 H-1B visas per year.  The H-1B cap was established to prevent foreigners from taking American jobs, but, in fact, an education gap frequently leaves American candidates less qualified for these positions. Lawmakers could improve the situation all around by removing the cap on H-1B visas while imposing a 10 percent payroll tax above and beyond the benchmark salary for any position being filled by holders of such visas. The proceeds of the payroll tax could be channeled into U.S. reeducation programs. This compromise would bring the best innovators to work here while subsidizing the continued education of American talent.  Read more from Reid Hoffman (founder of Linkedin)

 

 

Foreigners Attending US Grad Schools Way Down: Wake Up, Xenophobes

Posted: 23 Aug 2009 07:00 AM PDT

 

It’s happening: Lou Dobbs’ dream come true and Silicon Valley’s worst nightmare. We’re already seeing the reverse brain drain as smart immigrants take their US educations and experience building companies and creating technology back to their home countries.  But now, xenophobia and the lack of any sensible H-1B visa policy is keeping the world’s brightest minds from coming to the U.S. in the first place.

 

U.S. grad school admissions for would-be international students plummeted this year, according to the Council of Graduate Schools—the first decline in five years.  The decline was 3% on average, thanks to increases from China and the Middle East, but some countries saw double-digit declines in interest in a U.S. education. Applicants from India and South Korea fell 12% and 9% respectively—with students turning their sights on schools in Asia and Europe instead.

 

This shouldn’t be a surprise. Much of the world’s economic growth—hence, jobs—is in emerging markets, the schools are far cheaper and in many cases competitive academically, and then there’s the H-1B issue. If America won’t allow a PhD just trained in our top schools to work here and contribute to the economy—why come here and take on the student loans to begin with?

 

Make no mistake: This is a huge blow for the United States, and particularly Silicon Valley... read more from Tech Crunch

 

 

 

What is the effect on developing countries?

 

book, "Give Us Your Best and Brightest", by Devesh Kapur and John McHale...says...the best players leave, and the dream of emulating them motivates many others to take their place...The prospect of securing a visa to America or Australia should tempt more people in poor countries to invest in education. Mr Stark calls this a "brain gain". If the temptation is strong enough, and the chances of landing a visa low enough, the poor country could even come out ahead: it might gain more qualified (if disappointed) doctors and engineers than it loses.

 

India's software engineers are perhaps an example of this principle at work. Indian students had little reason to learn computer coding before there was a software industry to employ them. But such an industry could not take root without computer engineers to man it. The dream of a job in Silicon Valley, however, was enough to lure many of India's bright young things into coding, and that was enough to hatch an indigenous software industry where none existed before.

 

 

Criticism from "The Economist"

 

Consider the annual April Fool's joke played on applicants for H1B visas, which allow companies to sponsor highly-educated foreigners to work in America for three years or so. The powers-that-be have set the number of visas so low--at 85,000--that the annual allotment is taken up as soon as applications open on April 1st. America then deals with the mismatch between supply and demand in the worst possible way, allocating the visas by lottery. The result is that hundreds of thousands of highly qualified people--entrepreneurs who want to start companies, doctors who want to save lives, scientists who want to explore the frontiers of knowledge--are kept waiting on the spin of a roulette wheel and then, more often than not, denied the chance to work in the United States.

 

This is a policy of national self-sabotage. America has always thrived by attracting talent from the world. Some 70 or so of the 300 Americans who have won Nobel prizes since 1901 were immigrants. Great American companies such as Sun Microsystems, Intel and Google had immigrants among their founders. Immigrants continue to make an outsized contribution to the American economy. About a quarter of information technology (IT) firms in Silicon Valley were founded by Chinese and Indians. Some 40% of American PhDs in science and engineering go to immigrants. A similar proportion of all the patents filed in America are filed by foreigners.

 

These bright foreigners bring benefits to the whole of society. The foreigner-friendly IT sector has accounted for more than half of America's overall productivity growth since 1995. Foreigner-friendly universities and hospitals have been responsible for saving countless American cities from collapse. Bill Gates calculates, and respectable economists agree, that every foreigner who is given an H1B visa creates jobs for five regular Americans.

 

There was a time when ambitious foreigners had little choice but to put up with America's restrictive ways. Europe was sclerotic and India and China were poor and highly restrictive. But these days the rest of the world is opening up at precisely the time when America seems to be closing down. The booming economies of the developing world are sucking back talent that was once America's for the asking. About a third of immigrants who hold high-tech jobs in America are considering returning home. America's rivals are also rejigging their immigration systems to attract global talent.

 

Canada and Australia operate a widely emulated system that gives immigrants "points" for their educational qualifications. New Zealand allows some companies to hand out work visas along with job offers. Britain gives graduates of the world's top 50 business schools an automatic right to work in the country for a year. The European Union is contemplating introducing a system of "blue cards" that will give talented people a fast track to EU citizenship.

 

The United States is already paying a price for its failure to adjust to the new world. Talent-challenged technology companies are already being forced to export jobs abroad. Microsoft opened a software development centre in Canada in part because Canada's more liberal laws make it easier to recruit qualified people from around the world. This problem is only going to get worse if America's immigration restrictions are not lifted. The Labour Department projects that by 2014 there will be more than 2m job openings in science, technology and engineering, while the number of Americans graduating with degrees in those subjects is plummeting.

 

Let them come

 

The United States is fortunate that it can solve its talent problem with the wave of a magic wand, by simply expanding the supply of visas to meet the demand. Raise the cap on H1B visas--or better still abolish it--and increase the supply of green cards, and the world's brightest will come flooding in. A country that is blessed with a dynamic economy and a world-beating higher-education system does not even have to go around wooing people, as other countries do.

Yet America suffers from one big problem: its political system is especially dysfunctional when it comes to immigration. A few brave souls are trying to lift the H1B visa cap. But most politicians are more interested in bellowing about building walls to keep illegal immigrants out than thinking seriously about the problem. And a few are even actively campaigning to reduce the number of H1B visas in order to keep American jobs for Americans. As Mr Judge might well wonder: how do you win the global talent wars when Congress is already in the hands of the idiocracy?

 

 

 

US - Mex

 

US administration's determination to secure its borders since the September 11 attacks and, more recently, to stem the flow of undocumented workers from Mexico.

 

Influential books:

 

Samuel Huntington:  "Who are we?  The challenges to National identity"

 

From Publishers Weekly

In his seminal The Clash of Civilizations, Huntington anticipated the United States' battle with militant Islam. Here he turns his laser on America-or, rather, America as he thinks it ought to be. Despite its clinical tone, this book is an aggressive polemic whose central argument-that America, at heart, has been and in many ways should remain a Christian, Anglocentric country-wouldn't be out of place on many a conservative radio station. The author seeks at length to prove that the American Creed, which he defines as a Protestant-influenced ideology modeled on the British system, was the founders' original intent and remains America's best course. He then turns to many of the usual subjects-the imperiled primacy of English, the dangers of immigration and multiculturalism-to make his case. He argues that a growing divide between the patriotic working class and "denationalized elites" will lead to internal fissures. Where those findings can lead is another question. For instance, he predicts a movement of white nativism. This movement while not "advocating white racist supremacy" would still believe that the "mixing of races and hence culture is the road to national degeneration." The book is also marred by a number of self-contradictions; for example, Huntington draws heavily on the founders to make a nationalist case even as he acknowledges that notions of Americanism (as opposed to allegiances to individual states) became popular only after the Civil War. Exhaustively researched and occasionally inspired, this polemic remains more often filled with colorless and ineffectual writing that will provide evidence for the converted but do little to persuade the doubters.

 

 

Net migration rate This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

 

Country
Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)
Afghanistan 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Albania -4.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Algeria -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
American Samoa -21.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Andorra 6.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Angola 2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Anguilla 5.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda -6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Argentina 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Armenia -5.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Aruba 10 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Australia 3.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Austria 1.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Azerbaijan -2.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bahamas, The -2.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bahrain 0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bangladesh -0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Barbados -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Belarus 0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Belgium 1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Belize 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Benin 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bermuda 2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bhutan 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bolivia -1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Botswana 5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Brazil -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
British Virgin Islands 8.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Brunei 2.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Bulgaria -3.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Burkina Faso 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Burma 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Burundi 7.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cambodia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cameroon 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Canada 5.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cape Verde -11.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cayman Islands 17.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2007 est.)
Central African Republic 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Chad -2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Chile 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
China -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Christmas Island NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA
Colombia -0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Comoros 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Congo, Republic of the -3.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Costa Rica 0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cote d'Ivoire 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Croatia 1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cuba -1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Cyprus 0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Czech Republic 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Denmark 2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Djibouti 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Dominica -5.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Dominican Republic -2.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ecuador -2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Egypt -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
El Salvador -3.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Equatorial Guinea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Eritrea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Estonia -3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ethiopia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2007 est.)
European Union 1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA
Faroe Islands 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Fiji -2.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Finland 0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
France 1.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
French Polynesia 2.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Gabon -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Gambia, The 0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Gaza Strip 1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Georgia -4.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Germany 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ghana -0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Gibraltar 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Greece 2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Greenland -8.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Grenada -11.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Guam 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Guatemala -2.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Guernsey 3.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Guinea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Guinea-Bissau 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Guyana -7.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Haiti -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Honduras -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Hong Kong 4.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Hungary 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Iceland 1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
India -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Indonesia -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Iran -4.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Iraq 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ireland 4.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Isle of Man 5.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Israel 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Italy 2.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Jamaica -6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Japan 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Jersey 2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Jordan 6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Kazakhstan -3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Kenya 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Kiribati 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Korea, North 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Korea, South 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Kuwait 16.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Kyrgyzstan -2.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Laos 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Latvia -2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Lebanon 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Lesotho -0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Liberia 26.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Libya 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Liechtenstein 4.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Lithuania -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Luxembourg 8.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Macau 4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Macedonia -0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Madagascar 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Malawi 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Malaysia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2007 est.)
Maldives 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mali -6.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Malta 2.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Marshall Islands -5.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mauritania 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mauritius -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mayotte 3.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mexico -4.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Micronesia, Federated States of -21.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Moldova -1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Monaco 7.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mongolia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Montserrat 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Morocco -0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Mozambique 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Namibia 0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Nauru 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Nepal 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Netherlands 2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Netherlands Antilles -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
New Caledonia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there has been steady emigration from Wallis and Futuna to New Caledonia (2007 est.)
New Zealand 3.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Nicaragua -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Niger -0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Nigeria 0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Niue NA
Norfolk Island NA
Northern Mariana Islands 7.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Norway 1.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Oman 0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pakistan -1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Palau 1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Panama -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Papua New Guinea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Paraguay -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Peru -0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Philippines -1.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pitcairn Islands NA
Poland -0.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Portugal 3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Puerto Rico -1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Qatar 13.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Romania -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Russia 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rwanda 2.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Saint Helena 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Saint Kitts and Nevis -3.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Saint Lucia -1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon -4.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -7.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Samoa -9.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
San Marino 10.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sao Tome and Principe -2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Saudi Arabia -5.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Senegal 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Seychelles -5.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sierra Leone 0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: refugees currently in surrounding countries are slowly returning (2007 est.)
Singapore 7.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Slovakia 0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Slovenia 0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Solomon Islands 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Somalia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
South Africa -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Spain 0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sri Lanka -1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sudan 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Suriname -0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Svalbard NA
Swaziland 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sweden 1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Switzerland 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Syria 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Taiwan 0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Tajikistan -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Tanzania -1.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Thailand 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Timor-Leste 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Togo 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Tokelau NA
Tonga 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Trinidad and Tobago -11.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Tunisia -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Turkey 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Turkmenistan -3.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Turks and Caicos Islands 9.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Tuvalu 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Uganda 0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ukraine -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
United Arab Emirates 26.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
United Kingdom 2.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
United States 3.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Uruguay -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Uzbekistan -1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Vanuatu 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Venezuela -1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Vietnam -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Virgin Islands -8.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Wallis and Futuna NA
note: there has been steady emigration from Wallis and Futuna to New Caledonia (2007 est.)
West Bank 2.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Yemen 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zambia -2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zimbabwe 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)

 

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