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Places in Brazil

Page history last edited by Brian D Butler 9 years, 10 months ago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents:


 

 

 

Maps

 

Administrative divisions

Politically, Brazil is a Federation of twenty-six states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal).

 

 

State of Pernambuco

 

Pernambuco is the state in the Northeast of Brazil wher you find Recife, and other cities.

 

 

 

State of Sao Paulo

 

The state of São Paulo has an area of approximately 248,800 km² (95,700 mi²), and a population of about 40 million (21.5% of the population of Brazil), which makes it the most populous country subdivision in the Western Hemisphere.

 

São Paulo is the richest state in Brazil. It has the second highest per-capita income (lower than only the Federal District) and, with the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the highest standard of living in Brazil, despite the poverty in some peripheral parts of the largest cities.

 

Economy in Sao Paulo State

 

São Paulo state is responsible for approximately one-third of Brazilian GDP. The state's GDP (PPP) consists of 550 billion dollars, making it also the biggest economy of South America and one of the biggest economies in Latin America, second after Mexico. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, services, financial companies, commerce, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production.

 

Wealth is unequally distributed in the state, however. The richest municipalities are centered around Greater São Paulo (such as Campinas, Jundiaí, Paulínia, Americana, Indaiatuba, São José dos Campos, Santos, etc.), as well as a few other more distant nuclei, such as around São Carlos, Ribeirão Preto and São José do Rio Preto. Some regions, such as Registro and the Bananal region, in the border with Rio de Janeiro, are very poor, some of them nearly as poor as municipalities in the Northeast of Brazil.

 

 

Transport system in Sao Paulo State

 

São Paulo is the state with the largest system of transportation in Latin America, comprising roads, railways, fluvial lanes, airports, river and sea ports. The São Paulo City also boasts of a metro and a suburban railway system.

 

Demographics in State of Sao Paulo

 

São Paulo has the most diverse population of Brazil. Strong immigration in the late 19th century and early 20th century brought people from all over the world to the state.

 

The main ancestry groups in São Paulo are the Italians, the Spanish, and the Portuguese. There are about 15 million people of Italian descent living in the state, and it is one of the largest concentration of Italians outside Italy. São Paulo always had a large Spanish and Portuguese population since the 16th century, though most Spanish and Portuguese arrived in the state in the early 20th century.

 

The Arab population, mainly Christians of Lebanese or Syrian descent are 5 million, and people of German descent are about 3 million.

 

The population of Afro-Brazilian descent in São Paulo weren't a big number in the state, but a few communities were found since the last century. The number grew in the last decades, due to strong migration of people from northeastern Brazil, which used to concentrated most of them.

 

The people of Asian descent make up 2% of the population (about 1 million people)1 , most of them of Japanese descent (see Japanese-Brazilian). São Paulo has the largest Japanese population outside Japan. Other Asian groups include Chinese and Koreans.

 

List of cities in Sao Paulo state, by population

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_municipalities_in_the_state_of_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_by_population

 

 

Sao Paulo

 

Conduct becoming in São Paulo

Despite its many woes, São Paulo remains the business hub of Latin America. Local business-people tend to be fairly laid-back: if you are going there to work, you'll have few unexpected taboos to worry about. read more»

 

http://www.spcvb.com.br/

 

São Paulo is known to be the main economic center in Latin America. And the fame is not undeserved: international gastronomy capital, 4th largest city of the world and main access to visitors (9 million tourists per year, of which 57% come on business and 16.5% are from foreigners), the city is a fixed destination of large internationally renowned events, fairs, and exhibits. All of this contributes for companies to show their best to a population with high buying power. And that is not all. São Paulo also relies on 71.2 commercial establishments and is the city with the largest number of shopping malls in the country, thus making it easier to sell products to consumers. In addition, your brand becomes news in São Paulo, after all, the headquarters of 9 of the 10 largest Brazilian magazine publishing houses are here

 

Wikipedia on Sao Paulo

 

São Paulo ; (Portuguese for Saint Paul) is the capital of the state of São Paulo in the South East of Brazil. The city (limits) has an area of 1,523.0 square kilometres (588.0 sq. miles) and a population of 11,016,703 (2006 IBGE estimate), which makes it the third most populous in the Western Hemisphere. Because São Paulo is sprawling like Los Angeles, it has two definitions for its metropolitan area. By its CSA (Combined Statistical Area) type definition of metropolitan area, it is the second largest city in the world with 29 million inhabitants (Complexo Metropolitano Expandido). The more narrowly defined Greater São Paulo metropolitan area, which doesn't include Campinas, Baixada Santista and many other nearby areas (Região Metropolitana de São Paulo) has around 19.7 million inhabitants (2006), making it the fifth most populous metropolitan area in the world.

 

São Paulo is also known for its smog, the sheer size of its helicopter fleet, unreliable weather, and multitude of skyscrapers, holding the 7th position in the skyline ranking.

 

 

Government

 

In light of its economic and demographic weight, São Paulo has always played a pivotal role in Brazilian politics. With a constituency larger than that of many Brazilian states, the mayor's office is viewed by politicians as a springboard for state and national-level offices.

 

 

Physical Setting

 

São Paulo is located on a plateau that is part of the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range"), part of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 800m (2,625ft) above sea level - though at a distance of only about 70 km (40mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. This distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" section below) that roll down the range, leading to the portuary city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá.

 

Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo but in the North of the city - where the Serra da Cantareira Range boasts higher elevations and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The entire region is very stable tectonically, and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.

 

The river Tietê was once a source of freshwater and leisure for São Paulo. However, in the latter half of the 20th century, it became grossly polluted by raw sewage and industrial effluents, much like its tributary river Pinheiros. However, a substantial clean-up program for both rivers are under the pipeline, financed by international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation6. Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, however water transport becomes increasingly important on the river Tietê further downstream (towards South, near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.

 

There are no large natural lakes in the region, but the Guarapiranga and Billings reservoirs in the outskirts of São Paulo are used for power generation, water storage, and leisure activities such as sailing.

 

Economy of Sao Paulo

 

São Paulo is one of the most important financial centers in Latin America. São Paulo's stock exchange is the Bovespa, while its futures exchange is the BM&F. Its financial districts are located on the surroundings of Avenida Paulista and in the Centro Velho (Old Centre). Other important business districts are located in the boroughs of Pinheiros and Santo Amaro, including the large road Faria Lima.

 

There are a number of highly specialized regions, such as Bom Retiro and Brás (wholesale garment districts), Consolação (lighting equipment), Rua Santa Ifigênia (electrical and electronic parts), Rua Teodoro Sampaio (furniture and musical equipment), the posh Rua Oscar Freire (designer and label stores), Avenida Europa (luxurious automobiles) and the crowded Rua Vinte Cinco de Março.

 

In the last few years, São Paulo has become a major host to various international events and fairs, visited by the most varied audiences, ranging from scientists and artists to merchants and entrepreneurs, coming from Brazil and also from abroad. Some of the most important events that usually take place in the city are:

 

Shoes and Sport Items International Fair - Couromoda

Textile Industry International Fair - Fenit

Construction International Fair

Shoes, Fashion Accessories and Machines International Fair - Francal

Cosmetics and Beauty International Fair - Cosmetica

Lodging-related products, services and equipment International Fair - Equipotel

Car International Fair - Salão do Automóvel

International Book Fair - Bienal Internacional do Livro

 

There has been a gradual change in the city economic profile since a decade ago - from a strongly industrialized base to service and technology-oriented industries. Intensive manpower-consuming firms have been replaced by a great number of high-technology companies and service providers of a vast range, namely law services, banking, IT, consultancy firms, advertisement and radio and TV broadcasting companies

 

 

Demographics of Sao Paulo

 

São Paulo has significant ethnic diversity in comparison to other major cities:

 

  • 5,500,000 are direct or indirect descendants of Italians. The Edifício Itália (Italy Building), the second highest skyscraper of the city (165 m), was named in honor of the Italians.
  • 3,000,000 people are direct or indirect descendants of Portuguese.
  • 2,000,000 are direct or indirect descendants of Spaniards.
  • 1,500,000 people have direct or indirect African ancestry.
  • 1,000,000 people are direct or indirect descendants of Germans.
  • 850,000 people are direct or indirect descendants of Lebanese immigrants— by far the largest number of Lebanese outside Lebanon.
  • More than 1 million people are direct or indirect descendants of Japanese. São Paulo has the largest number of Japanese outside Japan. The Japanese community's historical centre is the Liberdade neighborhood.
  • São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish community in Brazil with about 130,000 people.
  • There is a considerable number of immigrants from other countries in Latin America, especially Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Chile.
  • Note that many paulistanos have mixed ethnic origins; the numbers above may count individuals belonging to multiple groups.
  • Other sizable groups are: Chinese, Armenians, Lithuanian, Greeks, Syrians, Koreans, Polish, Hungarians, and Jamaicans.

 

Eductation in Sao Paulo

 

São Paulo hosts the University of São Paulo (USP). USP is a state university financially supported by the State of São Paulo. It charges no tuition fees for students who qualify in its very competitive entrance exams. USP is an important centre for research, as well as being one of the most highly-regarded academic institutions in Brazil. USP's main campus is located in the Cidade Universitária neighbourhood. Several smaller campuses are located throughout the state.

 

Other respected universities include the Fundação Getúlio Vargas, the Federal University of São Paulo, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (PUC-SP), and Mackenzie Presbyterian University, the latter founded by North American missionaries. Also, São Paulo is home to the National Institute of Nuclear Research IPEN (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Nucleares) and the largest public hospital in the country (Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP).

 

 

 

 

 

Campinas

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campinas

 

Campinas is a city and county (município) located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

 

The county area is 797,6 km². Population is approximately 1,059,420 (2004 est.), with over 98% in the urban region. Its metropolitan area, defined in 2000, has some 19 cities and a population of 3,2 million people. Campinas is also the administrative center of the meso-region of the same name, with 3,641,766 inhabitants (2005 est.) and 49 cities. It is the third largest city in the state, after São Paulo (10,927,985 inhab. - 2006 est.) and Guarulhos (1,283,253 inhab. - 2006 est.).

 

 

 

 

Brazilian Silicon Valley

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_Silicon_Valley

 

Brazilian Silicon Valley is a term commonly applied to the city of Campinas, Brazil, because of its similarity to the 'original' Silicon Valley, located in California in the USA

 

Campinas has gained this distinction because it has several features, such as:

 

  • A modern city, located near a giant metropolis, São Paulo
  • A vibrant, high-tech university and research environment, composed by the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), the Pontificial Catholic University of Campinas (PUCCAMP), the Center for Research and Development in Telecommunications (CPqD), the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light, the Renato Archer Research Institute (CenPRA), the Brazilian Company of Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), the Agronomical Institute of Campinas, the Biological Institute, the Food Technology Institute, the Eldorado Institute, the Werner von Braun Institute and several others. Campinas boasts of a researcher/population ratio equal to the most developed centers
  • A number of high-tech, non-pollutant electrical and electronics industries have settled around Campinas, such as IBM, Lucent, Samsung, Nortel, Compaq, Motorola, Dell, Fairchild, Huawei, 3M, Texas Instruments, Celestica, Solectron, Bosch, etc.
  • The development of several industrial parks and incubators for high tech companies in the fields of microelectronics, computers, software, telecommunications, etc.

 

 

History

 

Until the 1970s, the Campinas region had few industries and had an economy based on agriculture and in the services and commerce sectors. With the foundation of UNICAMP and the ready availability of high-quality researchers, engineers and students focused on physics, electrical engineering, computer sciences, mathematics, mechanical engineering, etc., a number of high-tech companies started to establish their industrial plants and R&D labs nearby, such as IBM. The municipality of Campinas and those surrounding it began to foster actively the growth of this new area, and the CIATEC I and II (Companhia de Desenvolvimento do Pólo de Alta Tecnologia de Campinas) industrial zones were established around the university campus, in the subdistrict of Barão Geraldo. The Center for Research and Development (CPqD) set up by Telebras, a state holding for the telecommunications industry in Brazil, which had grown enormously under the military regime umbrella, was the second boost to Campinas Silicon Valley. A law was passed by the Federal government, protecting Brazilian-made technology against imports, and this resulted in further growth. Together with UNICAMP researchers a number of pioneering developments occurred in the brand-new areas of lasers, fiber optics, digital telephony, computer technology, software development, and so on. In addition, the Petrobras state-owned oil giant was starting to develop a long range oil exploration program with the aim of making Brazil independent of oil imports, a policy also started by the military for strategic and economic reasons (the oil shock had deeply affected the country), and UNICAMP was one of the leading research universities to participate. In this respect, UNICAMP's open philosophy of collaboration with the private sector (unheard of in Brazil until that time), established by his visionary founder and first rector, Dr. Zeferino Vaz, prepared the way for a unique synergy between industry and university.

 

Other High tech areas in Brazil:

 

Other areas in Brazil are also claiming a similar status to Campinas Silicon Valley, although they are much less organized and with smaller companies. They are:

 

  • São Carlos, State of São Paulo, with a high teconology industries and University of São Paulo and Federal University of São Carlos.
  • Recife, state of Pernambuco, with a budding Digital Port and many collaborative ties with the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • The Vale do Sapucaí in Minas Gerais, with several cities (such as Santa Rita do Sapucai) where collaboration between high-tech industries and universities (such as INATEL) is generally recognized as one of the best examples of a nascent Silicon Valley.
  • Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, not properly a Silicon Valley because it has mostly a software industry, but the upcoming BHTec along with possible semiconductor industry developments in its metropolitan area (specifically, in Confins) could change this situation.
  • Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, also has mostly a software industry.
  • The cities of Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Blumenau and Londrina, all in the Southeast and South, have also a strongly developed digital economy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Economy of Campinas

 

Campinas' main economic activities are agriculture (mainly coffee, sugarcane, and cotton), industry (textiles, motorcycles, cars, machinery, agricultural equipment, food and beverages, chemical and petrochemical, pharmaceuticals, paper and cellulose, telecommunications, computers and electronics, etc.), commerce and services.

 

The region is responsible for 9% of Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP)citation needed, with just over 3% of the country's population. Per capita income is one of the highest in Latin Americacitation needed (over US$ 9,000/year Purchase Parity Power). Absolute GDP has experienced a growth of more than 50%¨between 2000 and 2003citation needed. Five cities in Campinas' region are among the 100 largest in GDPs in Brazil (Campinas, Paulínia, Americana, Sumaré and Indaiatuba), with Campinas occupying the 14th position (total GDP of US$ 60 billion)citation needed. About 70 companies listed in the directory of the 500 largest private and public companies are headquartered in the Campinas region, with a total gross sales volume of more than 25 billion dollars in 2005 and more than 100,000 workers.

 

Campinas has been dubbed the Brazilian Silicon Valley, since it is home to many national and international high-tech industries (IBM, Motorola, Freescale, Lucent, Nortel, Compaq, Celestica, Samsung, Alcatel, Bosch, 3M, Texas Instruments and so on.

 

The automotive industry is also heavily represented, such as General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Magneti Marelli, Eaton Corporation, Tenneco and many otherscitation needed. It also has a sizable pharmaceutical industry sector, with companies like Medley Farma, EMS Farma, Altana, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Cristália, Valeo, etc.

 

In addition the region is home to many research centers and universities (such as LNLS, CPqD, CenPRA, EMBRAPA, UNICAMP, and PUCCAMP).

 

The region also boasts being the Brazilian city with the largest number of high-tech business incubators and industrial parks (in a total of eight), such as the CIATEC I and II, Softex, TechnoPark, InCamp, Polis, TechTown, Industrial Park of Campinas and others.

 

According to Wired Magazine, Campinas is one of the highest-growth high-tech areas in Latin America, second only to the city of São Paulo itself. Since 1995, the city has received over US$ 7 billion in investments in telecommunications, information technology and electronics. Of the 500 largest companies listed by Fortune magazine, 50 are already established in the Campinas region.

 

The presence of one of the largest oil refineries in Latin America (350,824 barrels of crude per day), operated by Petrobras in the neighboring county of Paulínia, has attracted many petrochemical industries to the Campinas area, including DuPont, Rhone-Poulenc, and Royal Dutch Shell.

 

The Brazilian Pró-Álcool Program was developed in Campinas (development of a whole industry around the use of ethanol as a combustible for motor vehicles, going from a new sucrose-rich sugarcane, to alcohol refineries, a huge distribution system, as well as a new engine), etc.; and, more recently, an internal combustion engine capable of using either gasoline or ethanol.

 

Other examples of Campinas-bred technologies were fiber optics, lasers for telecommunications and medicine applications, integrated circuits design and fabrication, satellite environmental monitoring of natural resources, software for agriculture, digital telephone switches, deep-water oil exploration platforms and technologies, biomedical equipment, medical software, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technologies for food production and pharmaceutics, food engineering, and many others.

 

Socio Economic Conditions of Campinas

 

Socio-economic conditions

Despite Campinas' position of wealth and social and economic opportunity vis-a-vis the rest of the country, the average per capita income of little more than US$ 2,700 per year clearly indicates that there are problems. If re-evaluated in terms of PPP (Purchasing Power Parity), Campinas' average income looks better (roughly 9,000 USD per year). In fact, Campinas is emblematic of the wealth distribution inequality that is so common in the country (Brazil is the 14th largest economy in the world, but ranks only 32nd in wealth generation per capita, and 117th in average Gini coefficient). Campinas has a Gini coefficient of 58%, which is almost the same as that of Brazil (59.3), a level similar to countries such as Zimbabwe and Paraguay. Such a level means that the top 10% richest make almost 70 times more than the 10% poorest.

 

This level of poverty contrasts with the high Human Development Index of Campinas, which is about the same level as Chile, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania and Slovakia. The explanation for this apparent contradiction is that side by side, even in the same city section, one can find walled condominiums with a yearly average per capita income of US$ 60,000 to US$ 100,000 and spreading "favelas" (slum cities) with incomes of less than US$ 800 p.a. The classes A and B help move the local economy, and provide a strong tax base for the municipality.

 

Until the late 1970s, Campinas was proud to have no favelas, but the increasing industrialization and wealth attracted hordes of destitute agrarian workers and urban dwellers with few job qualifications from all parts of the country. Land invasions were frequent and the municipal powers were unable or unwilling to suppress them, allowing illegal occupation of land in key sectors of the city (in Brazil, state and counties are forbidden by the Federal Constitution to restrict or even measure the free movement of citizens).

 

Due to all this, Campinas has relatively high crime rates for its size. Most of the violent crimes (armed robbery and homicides) are related to drug trafficking and occur in the poorer sections of the city

 

 

 

 

Agriculture

 

Campinas has the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas.

 

 

 

Transportation

 

the construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.

 

Campinas is a major transportation and telecommunications hub for the State of São Paulo, as it is located on the major highways that connect the capital to the Northwest and Northern parts of the State. The city is served by the a Campinas Beltway (Anel Viário)

 

Campinas has long been a major railway hub, too, although passenger train lines no longer operate there.

 

Its international airport, Viracopos Airport, has long been the State's main air cargo terminal, and its passenger traffic is rapidly expanding

 

 

Communications

 

Campinas is a major telecommunications hub in the state and in the countrycitation needed. It has the largest per capita number of fixed and mobile telephone lines in the São Paulo state and one of the largest in the countrycitation needed. The city is also a major hub for cable, fiber optic, microwave and satellite communication networkscitation needed. COMSAT operates near Campinas one of the largest satellite ground stations in Latin Americacitation needed, and the National Research and Education Network (Rede Nacional de Pesquisa e Educação) has a high-capacity point of presence (POP) in the city.

 

 

Education and Health

 

Campinas has strong educational and health care institutions which attract students and patients from all over Latin Americacitation needed. Besides a state university, UNICAMP, Campinas boasts a student population of over 60,000citation needed, with many private universities having campuses in the city. Several of its hospitals and specialized clinics are among the best in Brazil, such as the huge State University of Campinas Clinics Hospital, Instituto Penido Burnier, Centro Infantil Domingos Boldrini and many others.

 

Universities

 

UNICAMP (Universidade Estadual de Campinas)

PUCC (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas)

UNIP (Universidade Paulista)

FACAMP (Faculdades de Campinas)

METROCAMP (Faculdade Integrada Metropolitana de Campinas)

IPEP (Faculdades Integradas IPEP)

UNISAL (Centro Universitário Salesiano)

USF (Universidade São Francisco)

ESAMC (Escola Superior de Administração, Marketing e Comunicação)

Universidade Mackenzie

FAC (Faculdades Comunitárias de Campinas) = Anhangüera Educacional S.A.

Faculdades Fleming

 

 

Technical schools

 

ETE Bento Quirino (Escola Técnica Estadual Bento Quirino)

ETECAP (Escola Técnica Estadual Conselheiro Antonio Prado)

COTUCA (Colégio Técnico da Universidade de Campinas)

 

 

 

Ribeirão Preto

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribeir%C3%A3o_Preto

 

Ribeirão Preto (Portuguese for "Black Brook") is a municipality and city in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is nicknamed Brazilian California, because of a combination of an economy based on agrobusiness plus high technology, wealth and sunny weather all year long. With 570,000 inhabitants, Ribeirão Preto is the ninth largest municipality in the state. With a total area of 652.2 km²

 

History of Ribeirão Preto

 

The city was founded June 19, 1856, by farmers coming from the southeast of São Paulo State in search of good climate and soil for coffee growing. The city was laid by a stream called Black Creek, and was named after it (Ribeirão Preto means black creek in Portuguese, sometimes the city name is mistranslated as "Black Stream", which is also the name of a hotel in the city). Eventually the farmers’ choice revealed itself as very adequate and the fertile soil of the Ribeirão Preto region allowed the highest crop productivity in Brazil.

 

The rapid development of the coffee cultivation brought wealth and progress to the city, which by the 1880s had become the largest coffee producer in the world. Coffee, the “green gold” as it was called, was responsible for a kind of “gold rush” in the region, which attracted workers and adventurous people from several parts of the world. This movement was helped by the new Mogiana Railway, which linked Ribeirão Preto to São Paulo and to the port city of Santos, and the abolition of slavery in Brazil, in 1888. The end of slavery created a strong demand for labor and the “coffee barons”, as the coffee farmers were called, stimulated European immigration - mostly from Italy but also from Portugal, Spain and Germany - to Ribeirão Preto. Later, after the stock market crash of 1929, several of these immigrants bought the farms from their indebted former employers.

 

 

 

Economy Ribeirão Preto

 

After the New York Stock Exchange crash of 1929 the economy of Ribeirão Preto, based on a single export crop, collapsed, and the city had to adapt to a new situation. Since the city is relatively far from other major Brazilian urban centers, it found a new economic vocation in the services and commercial sector, which was developed to attend the local and regional demands.

 

The second economic boom in the history of Ribeirão Preto occurred after the oil crisis of the 1970s. The increase in the oil price obliged Brazil to look for alternative means of fueling and the solution found was the alcohol fuel program, or Pro-Álcool as it is called. Pró-Álcool led to the development of a technology which allows the use of ethanol (sugarcane alcohol) either as automotive fuel or as a gasoline additive. The latter improves performance and substitutes lead thus decreasing polluting emissions. Due to the Pró-Álcool program, farmers from the region of Ribeirão Preto were encouraged by government subsidies to grow sugarcane. The high productivity of the land around Ribeirão Preto rapidly placed the region as the largest alcohol and sugar producer of the world, being responsible for 30 percent of Brazil’s sugarcane alcohol fuel.

 

Contrary to what happened during the city's first economic boom, this time Ribeirão Preto farmers and entrepreneurs did not concentrate themselves exclusively on a single crop and diversified their investments making the city one of the most important agribusiness centers of Brazil. Besides sugar and alcohol, Ribeirão Preto's major products are orange juice, cotton, rice, meat, dairy products, textiles, machinery, steel, furniture, building materials, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and, of course, beer.

 

The sugarcane boom brought a new age of prosperity for the city, which was called the "Brazilian California" during the 1980s and early 1990s. On the one hand, this has increased the city's wealth and turned it into a sophisticated center of services for Brazil and South America but, on the other hand, the image of a new "Eldorado" attracted many migrants from impoverished areas of Brazil leading to a rapid population growth and the appearance of slums (favelas as they are called in Brazil) with all the negative aspects associated to them like drug trafficking and high violence and crime rates, an unfortunate fact that Ribeirão Preto shares with all other major Brazilian cities.

 

 

Map

http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=-21177689&x=-47786407&z=12&l=0&m=h&v=2

 

 

 

São José dos Campos

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Jos%C3%A9_dos_Campos

 

Nickname: Capital of the Valley

and The Airplane Capital

 

São José dos Campos is a municipality and a major city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and one of the most important industrial and research centers in Latin America.

 

It is located in the Vale do Paraíba (Paraiba Valley), between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo (80 km from the city) and Rio de Janeiro (320 km).

 

According to a 1999 UN study, São José dos Campos was rated one of the top 25 Brazilian cities for quality of life. With its high per capita income, long life expectancy and high level of infrastructure, São José dos Campos is a safe and secure city that offers a wide variety of stores and services.

 

The State of São Paulo is divided politically and administratively into 15 regions. São José dos Campos is the seat and the name of the 3rd Administrative Region, which includes the North Coast of São Paulo state and Paraíba Valley. The region is comprised of 39 municipalities with sharp contrasts. São José dos Campos is a densely populated city, with 490 inhabitants/square kilometers, whereas the quiet municipality of São José do Barreiro has only 7 inhabitants/square kilometer. There are both highly industrialized cities and the others in the region are focused on agriculture and tourism. São José dos Campos is well know as the Capital do Vale which means that São José dos Campos is the most important city from the Paraíba Valley.

 

It is one of the state's most dynamic areas, the fourth one in terms of population density, and covers 11.3% of the state's territory. The main municipalities are São José dos Campos, Taubaté, Jacareí, Guaratingueta, Caraguatatuba, Campos do Jordão, São Sebastião, Lorena, Pindamonhangaba, Ubatuba and Caçapava.

 

Population of the region : 2,243,687 (est. 2006/IBGE)

Population Density: 288.56 inhabitants per square kilometer

 

 

History of São José dos Campos

 

The origins of São José dos Campos lie at the end of the 16th Century when Jesuits founded a cattle farm, Aldeia do Rio Comprido. The farm was created through a concession of settlements around 1590 to the Society of Jesus. The farm was located on the banks of the Rio Comprido, natural division between São José and the city of Jacareí today

 

At the beginning of the gold mining economic cycle in Brazil, the settlement goes through serious difficulties due to the exit of labor to the mines.

 

Cotton and coffee

In the middle of the 19th Century, the village of São José do Paraíba had demonstrated some signs of economic growth through the development of agriculture. Cotton production evolved rapidly in the region, exported to the English textile industry. The production reached a peak in 1864.

 

In the same year, on April 22, the town became the seat of a municipality, acquiring finally, in 1871, the current name of São José dos Campos, followed by the creation of a judiciary district in 1872. Almost simultaneously, there was development of coffee crops in Paraíba Valley, which started to take off in 1870.

 

In 1886, after the opening of the the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil railway (1877), the coffee production peaked. Then started to decay, running steady until the 1930s.

 

The call for the municipality of São José dos Campos for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis by sanatoriums became noticed at the beginning of last century, due to its supposedly favorable climate conditions. The city became to be known as the Sanatorium City. The country’s then largest hospital, the Vicentina Aranha Sanitarium, was opened in town in 1924, and in 1935 the municipality was officially recognized as a health retreat.

 

With the advent of antibiotics in the 1940s, tuberculosis begins to be treated anywhere, thus ending the healthcare advantage carried out by São José, whereas the establishment of industries was about just to start.

 

The industrialization process of the municipality takes hold from the installation of the Aeronautics Technological Institute in 1950 and also with the opening of the Dutra Highway (BR-116), thus making possible a faster connection between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and cutting into the urban area of São José dos Campos. Altogether, these factors allowed the municipality to make strides towards fulfilling its scientific and technological potential.

 

 

Demographics

 

The built up regions of São José dos Campos and the neighboring city of Jacarei have merged in the last two decades. The estimated population is 835,000.

 

The large population growth that occurred in the city was a result of continuous migration from other regions of the country. As a consequence, in 1991, people that were born in São José dos Campos represented only 47% of population (according to IBGE). According to a new research from Univap, this number increased to 49.83% in 2004.

 

In the city, the population (according to census 2000) was spread out with:

 

24.2% under the age of 14

20.1% from 15 to 24

47.4% from 25 to 59

8.2% who were 60 years of age or older.

 

 

Education and Research

 

São José dos Campos has a pivotal role as research center in Brazil. The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has its headquarters there. It coordinates intensive research and development in areas such as Earth observation, space sciences and space technologies. Also the Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (CTA) has its facilities in the city. There are 53 secondary schools, 54 primary schools and 109 preschools.

 

 

Research centers

 

INPE - The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research

Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (CTA) with its four institutes: Aeronautics and Space Institute (IAE), Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Industrial Foment and Coordination Institute (IFI) and ITA

 

 

Economy

 

Bisceted by the Federal Highway BR-116 Dutra, which links it to the main economical centers of the country, São José dos Campos is a city that continuously tries to develop its infrastructure and technology, improving the quality of life of its citizens and opening new opportunities for business. The presence of educational and research centers in the city was a major key for its fast economical development. It occupies the 9th position among the 100 best Brazilian cities for business, according to a study of the magazine Exame published in 2002. In another study, made by Cushman & Wakefield, an American company in the area of real estate business, São José dos Campos was appointed worldwide as one of the seven best cities with opportunities of investment in real estate.

 

High and positive economy indicators show that this municipality has a great share in the state and in the country's economy.

 

In 2004, the municipality had the eleventh Gross Domestic Product on national terms and the third GDP withing the State. It was the second exporter only to the city of São Paulo (revenues of USD 4.7 billion) in 2004.

 

Its estimated per capita income value, in nominal terms, was US$ 10,715 (far higher than the national average or even São Paulo's).

 

Discussions about how to diversify the activities in the city have been held. Around 66.6% of the local economy still comes from the manufacturing sector. Many economists, such as Roberto Koga, consider the city still heavily dependent from few sectors, especially the aerospace and defense industry.

 

Despite these arguments, the city was appoínted as the 3rd best employer among Brazilian non-capital cities by magazine Você S/A , published in July 2005

 

 

Industry

 

In contrast to the rural town in 1950s, today São José is an important manufacturing center and holds a large array of industries. Over 1251 industries are in the municipality and nearby 47,000 inhabitants work for industries. The three main industries are automotive, oil/petrochemical and aerospace. There are significant pharmaceutical, consumer durables, chemical, and telecommunication companies in the city.

 

It is also known as the "Brazilian aeronautics capital" because it is home to one of the biggest regional aviation aircraft manufacturers in the world, Embraer. It owes much of its economic success to Embraer's presence.

 

 

Service Industry

 

Since the 1990s, the local economy has been evolving in a different direction. The manufacturing economy has been downsized or replaced by tertiary and quartenary sectors of industries.

 

For instance, the Entrepreneurial District of Chacaras Reunidas concentrates companies of micro, small and medium size, which are mainly the result of downsizing from old large local industries. Yet even though most of these are industries, these companies provide service as well.

 

Two technological parks and five (one in project) business incubators have been created within universities or industrial facilities.

 

There are incubators with technological start-up companies installed at Univap and at Henrique Lage Refinery of Petrobrás. The CTA houses other incubator, Incubaero, specialized in the aeronautical field.

 

Univap features a technological park with capacity for around 40 small to medium sized innovating companies in the areas of materials, electronics and telecommunications, information technology, aerospace, energy, environment control, biotechnology, bioinformatics, chemical engineering, and software among others. A new technological park, managed by the municipality and the state government of Sao Paulo, will house two new think tanks: the Institute for Technological Research (IPT) and the ItecBio (Instituto de Tecnologias Biomédicas).

 

As a result of its geographical location, the city became an important distribution center, having several logistics providers. Activities like purchasing, transport, planning and warehousing have employed many people recently.

 

Commerce and real estate ventures have developed in the last years, reflecting the changes in the economy. For instance, the largest shopping mall in the region was an old manufacturing facility. Serving the region's population of approximately one million, the city is the regional hub for shopping and services for the Vale do Paraíba, the northern coast of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais.

 

The city has 34 hotels (1784 hotel rooms) and several auditoriums for meetings and conventions. There are 77 bank branches and 8 internet providers.

 

Advertising agencies have been established alongside television stations.

 

Major companies in São José dos Campos area

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_companies_in_S%C3%A3o_Jos%C3%A9_dos_Campos_area

 

Aerospace and defense

Avibrás

Embraer

Gamesa

Sobraer/Sonaca

Sopeçaero

HTA - High Technology Aeronautics Consortium: EMBRAER, EADS/Casa and suppliers: Aeroserv, Alltec, Autômata, Bronzeana, Compoende, Graúna, Leg, Mirage, Spu, Status e Tecplás.

Pilkington Aerospace

Latecoère

ENAER

Parker Hannifin

Honeywell

Rockwell Collins

Mectron

 

Automotive

General Motors

Johnson Controls

TI Automotive

Eaton Corporation

Heatcraft

Oriondisambiguation needed

 

Business process outsourcing - Call Centers

Atento (Grupo Telefonica)

 

Chemical

Eastman Kodak (it will be the future Business Center of Vale)

Monsanto

Crylor - Radici Group

BBA Bidim

BASF

 

Pharmaceutical

Johnson & Johnson

Ultimate

 

Energy

Petrobras

 

Telecommunications, electrical and electronics

Amplimatic

Century do Brasil

Dresser Industries

Panasonic

Kone

Ivc Vanasa

Ericsson

LG Philips (joint venture)

Hitachi

Tectelcom

 

Textile

Kanebo

Cobertores Parahyba

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_companies_in_S%C3%A3o_Jos%C3%A9_dos_Campos_area"

 

 

 

Santos (São Paulo)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santos_%28S%C3%A3o_Paulo%29

 

Santos is a municipality in the São Paulo state of Brazil. It is partially located on the island of São Vicente which harbors both the city of Santos and the city of São Vicente, and partially on the mainland. It is the main city in the metropolitan region of Baixada Santista. As of 2006, its population was estimated at 418,375. Santos has the biggest seaport in Latin America, which traded over 72 million tons in 2006; is a significant tourist centre; has large industrial complexes and shipping centres, which handle a large portion of the world's coffee exports; as well as a number of other Brazilian exports including steel, oil, cars, oranges, bananas and cotton. The city also displays the Coffee Museum, where, once, coffee prices were negotiated; and a football memorial, dedicated to the city's greatest players, amongst which is Pelé. In October 2006, light crude oil was discovered off the coast in the Santos basin.

 

 

 

São Carlos

 

 

 

tech center

 

a city of 220,000 inhabitants in the state of São Paulo. Nowadays most of the region's agricultural production has shifted from coffee to sugar cane, but the mainstay of the city's economy is industrialized and technological products.

 

Geography

São Carlos is located in the geographic center of the state of São Paulo, approximately 234 km from the City of São Paulo. Its altitude is over 800 m, offering a mild altitude climate. Most of the year the city is windy, sunny and with mild temperatures at night. For this reason the city is nicknamed "Cidade do Clima" (Weather City) and celebrates once a year an event called "Festa do Clima" (Portuguese for 'Weather Party').

 

 

Economy

 

Economy and culture

The city has an active industrial profile and certain agricultural importance, backed by technologies developed by Embrapa, owner of two research complexes in the city. Due to the relatively high number of high technology industries situated in the city, it was nicknamed "The Capital of Technology". Nowadays, there are cities like Campinas that deserves this title more than São Carlos.

 

The city hosts several locally-grown technology-based companies and factories of multinational corporations such as Faber Castell, Electrolux, Husqvarna, Toalhas São Carlos, Tapetes São Carlos, Tecumseh and the Brazilian factory of Volkswagen engines.

 

São Carlos is home to the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) and also hosts two of the campuses of the University of São Paulo (USP). These are two of the most important universities in Brazil. Moreover other minor, private universities are also based in Sao Carlos. Because of this, São Carlos has a very high relative number of students, and that fact is reflected in the abundance of student-focused commercial establishments and the high number of student parties.

 

The cultural life is marked by the large number of college students that form a good audience for musical concerts of Brazilian contemporary alternative artists that usually include the city in their tours.

 

There are many cafes where graduate students and professors socialize.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Rio de Janeiro

 

Rio de Janeiro

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_De_Janeiro

 

Rio de Janeiro is a major city in southeastern Brazil and the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The city was once the capital of Brazil (1763–1960) and of the Portuguese Empire (1808–1821). Commonly known as just Rio, the city is also nicknamed A Cidade Maravilhosa - "The Marvelous City".

 

It is famous for its spectacular natural setting, its Carnival celebrations, samba and other music, hotel-lined tourist beaches, such as Copacabana and Ipanema, paved with decorated black and cream swirl pattern mosaics, and also for its huge social disparities, shanty towns, violence and drug traffic. Some of the most famous local landmarks in addition to the beaches include the giant statue of Jesus, known as Christ the Redeemer ('Cristo Redentor') atop Corcovado mountain; Sugarloaf mountain (Pão de Açúcar) with its cable car; the Sambódromo, a giant permanent parade stand used during Carnival; and Maracanã stadium, one of the world's largest football stadiums. Rio also boasts the world's largest forest inside an urban area, called Floresta da Tijuca, or 'Tijuca Forest'

 

The population of the City of Rio de Janeiro is about 6,136,6521 (2006 IBGE estimate), occupying an area of 1,182.3 square kilometres (456.5 mi²).2 The population of the larger metropolitan area is estimated at 11-12 million. It was Brazil's capital until 1960, when Brasília took its place.

 

Airports

 

Airports

The City of Rio de Janeiro has five airports.

 

Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport: used for all the international flights and some long-haul domestic flights;

 

Santos Dumont Regional Airport: Rio de Janeiro's first airport, and formerly the International Airport. It is considered one of the best set airports in whole world because of its location between Sugar Loaf, Corcovado, the Aterro do Flamengo, and Guanabara Bay. Today it is used by the São Paulo – Rio de Janeiro Air Shuttle Service and some flights inside the Rio de Janeiro state, especially to oil-producing cities in the north.

 

Aeroporto de Jacarepaguá: In the Barra da Tijuca district. It is currently used by Aeroclube do Brasil (Brasil Flying Club) with small aircraft but is planned to be used for the Rio de Janeiro - São Paulo Air Shuttle Service since it is just inside Barra, the city's fastest-growing district.

 

Campo dos Afonsos: Military airport, where the Brazilian Air Force presents its aerobatic shows. It also holds the MUSAL (Museu Aero-Espacial), one of the largest aviation museums in Latin America.

 

Santa Cruz Air Base: Military airport.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Ceará

 

Fortaleza

 

 

Fortaleza is the state capital of Ceará, located in northeastern Brazil. With a population of over 2.4 million (metropolitan area), Fortaleza has an area of 336 sq km. To the north of the city lies the Atlantic Ocean; to the south are the cities of Pacatuba, Eusébio, Maracanaú and Itaitinga; to the east is the county of Aquiraz and the Atlantic Ocean; and to west is the city of Caucaia.

 

English and Spanish in schools

Portuguese language is the official language of schools. But English language and Spanish language are part of the official high school curriculum.

 

 

Colleges and universities

Education in Fortaleza is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Fortaleza is home to some of the most important universities and research centres in the Northeast of Brazil.

 

Universidade Federal do Ceará(UFC)

Universidade Estadual do Ceará are the public universities in the city. The greatest private institution is Universidade de Fortaleza UNIFOR

 

Tourism

 

Three thousand hours of sunlight per year and the constant ocean breeze make Fortaleza an appealing tourist attraction. The nightlife is full of festivities, with bars, restaurants, and shows. The city is known for having the "wildest Monday nights in the world". Some of the best bars and clubs can be found near Dragão do Mar. The Praia de Iracema (Iracema's beach), one of the first urban nuclei of the city, holds many bars and restaurants as well. It includes the pier known as the Ponte dos Ingleses (Bridge of the Englishmen) —located near the old docks—which is used to watch the sunset and spot dolphins.

 

Fortaleza's urbanised beaches have warm waters. The scenery is complemented by the jangadas (small rafts used by many of Ceará's fishermen), which catch seafood for Ceará cuisine. The Praia do Futuro (Beach of the Future) is a popular meeting place for bathers, with many beachside restaurants, built in the local style using carnauba straw and called "Barracas de Praia" (Beach Huts.) On Thursday nights, the beach becomes the focus of the city's nightlife, with live music, forró, and crab a popular choice to eat.

 

A few kilometres away from the city are other well-known beaches: Prainha, Iguape and Porto das Dunas. The last two have large water parks.

 

Fotaleza is served by the Pinto Martins International Airport.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Minas Gerais

 

Belo Horizonte

 

 

 

 

Belo Horizonte (a Portuguese name meaning "beautiful horizon", is the third largest metropolitan area in Brazil. It is the capital of Minas Gerais state, located in the southeastern region of the country. With a population of almost 2.4 million and over 5.3 million in the official metropolitan area, Belo Horizonte — or "Beagá" as it is more familiarly known from the sound of its initials BH in Portuguese — is a place of vibrant economic and cultural activity.

 

Economy

 

Belo Horizonte has never been a popular destination among tourists, as it lacks one of the main touristic features of Brazil - beaches. However, it annually receives great amounts of visitors, as it is in the Brazilian main economic axis with economic influence even on regions of other states. Both multinational and Brazilian companies, like Google and Oi, maintain their headquarters in the city.

 

The service sector plays a very important role in the economy of Belo Horizonte, being responsible for 85% of the city's GDP, with the industry making up for most of the remaining 15%.

 

Belo Horizonte has a developed industrial sector, being traditionally a pole of the Brazilian siderurgical and metallurgical industries, as the state of Minas Gerais has always been very rich in minerals, specifically iron ore. The main industrial district of the city was set during the 1940s in Contagem, a part of greater Belo Horizonte. Multinational companies like FIAT, Arcelor, and Toshiba have subsidiaries in the region, along with other textile, cosmetic, food, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furnishing and refractory companies.

 

Between the companies headquartered in the city we can list siderurgicals Açominas (held by Gerdau, one of the largest multinationals originated in Brazil); Usiminas; Belgo-Mineira (held by Arcelor); Acesita (partially held by Arcelor); mobile communication Telemig Celular; and Tim Maxitel, as well as the NYSE-listed electrical company CEMIG, which is said to have the best transmission quality of Brazil. Leading steel product makers Sumitomo Metals of Japan and Vallourec of France have also recently announced plans to construct an integrated steel works on the outskirts of Belo Horizonte.

 

 

There are also a large number of small enterprises in the technological sector with regional to nationwide success, such as biotechnology Biomm, information technology firms RM Sistemas and Paiva Piovesan, and industrial automation company IHM, among others.

 

Due to both governmental and private funding in the diversification of its economy, the city has become an international reference in Information Technology and Biotechnology, and is also cited because of the advanced corporate and university research in Biodiesel fuel. Projects in these fields are likely to expand due to integration between universities, the oil company Petrobras and the Brazilian Government. Over 16% of the Brazilian biotechnological industries are located in Belo Horizonte, with annual revenues of more than US$550 million.

 

During the past few years, the city has made investments in "business-tourism," by promoting more than 3,000 national or international events yearly. One of the largest events that ever took place in the city, the IDB meeting, occurred in 2005 and attracted people from everywhere in the world.

 

Transportation

 

An important federal highway, goes from Belo Horizonte to São Paulo, the largest and richest city in Brazil. Minas Gerais has the country's largest federal highway network

 

 

More

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belo_Horizonte

 

http://www.belohorizonte.mg.gov.br/ing/a_cidade_economia.php

 

 

Technology in M.G.

 

The Vale do Sapucaí in Minas Gerais, with several cities (such as Santa Rita do Sapucai) where collaboration between high-tech industries and universities (such as INATEL) is generally recognized as one of the best examples of a nascent Silicon Valley.

 

Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, not properly a Silicon Valley because it has mostly a software industry, but the upcoming BHTec along with possible semiconductor industry developments in its metropolitan area (specifically, in Confins) could change this situation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Santa Catarina

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Catarina_%28Brazil%29

 

Santa Catarina (pronunciation (help·info) pron. IPA: ['sɐ̃.ta ka.ta.'ɾi.na] 1) is a state in southern Brazil with one of the highest standards of living in the country. Its capital is Florianópolis, which mostly lies on the Santa Catarina Island.

 

Neighboring states are Rio Grande do Sul to the south and Paraná to the north. It is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the west it borders the province of Misiones, Argentina.

 

Most of its inhabitants are descendants of Portuguese, German and Italian immigrants.

 

Joinville is its largest city.

 

Santa Catarina is in a very strategic position in Mercosur, the South American Common Market.

 

 

 

Economy of Santa Catarina State

 

Santa Catarina has one of the highest standards of living in Brazil- comparable to the Iberian Peninsula countries, and is a major industrial and agricultural center.

 

In the northeast of the state, electric-mechanical, textile and furniture industries are stronger; in the west, cattle and poultry breeding, and in the south, ceramics and shellfishes.

 

The corridor between Joinville, Jaragua do Sul and Blumenau is heavily industrialized - more than 50% of the state's industrial output is concentrated in this small, but very developed area.

 

Santa Catarina has some of the most beautiful beaches in Brazil - Summer months (Dec-Mar) make the state one of the most sought-after travel destinations in Brazil and South America. Tens of thousands of Argentines and Paraguayans flock to the state's beaches from mid December to late January.

 

The major cities and their respective fields are:

 

1. Joinville, metal-mechanic; tourism/events; software; commerce.

2. Florianópolis, tourism; government; technology; education.

3. Blumenau, software, textile and beer.

4. São José.

5. Criciúma, ceramics.

6. Chapecó, cattle and poultry breeding.

7. Lages.

8. Itajai, seaport.

9. Jaraguá do Sul, electric motors and textile.

10. Palhoça

11. Balneário Camboriú major beach resort.

12. Tubarão.

13. Brusque, textile.

14. São Bento do Sul, furniture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Florianópolis

 

 

 

software industry

 

Florianópolis (also known by its nickname Floripa) is the capital city of Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil. It is composed of one main island, the Island of Santa Catarina, one continental part and the surrounding small islands. It has a population of 406,564 (2006/IBGE). Its metropolitan area has a population of over 821,423 inhabitants.

 

Florianópolis is Brazil's only state capital on an island. It is surrounded by smaller islands with forts, which protected ships in the 17th century.

 

 

Although originally settled by the Portuguese (from the Archipelago of Azores), the city has a strong German and Italian influence, like the rest of the state. Florianópolis is a popular destination for South American tourists, because of its location and white sand beaches. Florianópolis is served by Hercílio Luz International Airport for both domestic and international flights.

 

 

Economy

 

Florianópolis has its economy consolidated basically in the activities of the commerce, installment of public service, industry of transformation and tourism. Lately, the industries of clothing and data processing are becoming also sectors of exceptional development. Civil construction is also another important economic activity of the city, with highlight for the beaches of the north region of the island (Jurerê, Jurerê Internacional, Canasvieiras e Ingleses).

 

 

Tourism

It is considered by many inhabitants and tourists that Floripa has a singular beauty, endowed with strong lines of Azorean culture, observed in the buildings, workmanship, in the folklore, culinary and in the religious traditions, Florianópolis has in the tourism one of its main springs of yield. The attractions of the city go beyond white sand beaches: The localities where the first communities of Azorean immigrants were installed, as Stream of the Island, Pond of the Conception, Holy Antonio of Lisbon and the own historical center of the city are some examples.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Rio Grande do Sul

 

Porto Alegre

 

 

 

Porto Alegre (lit. "Joyous Port"), one of the largest cities in Brazil, is the capital city of Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre is the most important city of Southern Brazil, consisting of a cultural, political and economical center. Porto Alegre held2 the best standard of living among all Brazilian capitals for many years and it was the only Brazilian city listed3 on Jones Lang LaSalle's World Winning Cities.

 

the second largest city in southern Brazil, it is also an important industrial center in the mentioned geographical area. Important Brazilian universities, such as UFRGS, FFFCMPA and PUCRS are located there.

 

Porto Alegre is also one of the wealthiest cities in Latin America, and one of the most diverse. It has welcomed immigrants from all over the world, the largest numbers coming from Portugal, Germany, Italy, Spain and Poland. The are also significant Arab, Jewish and Afro-Brazilian contingents in the population.

 

Porto Alegre is part of a transitional area culturally influenced by both São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; as well as Buenos Aires. Examples of both tendencies are visible through the openness in facing social needs such as the emerging gay rights and receptiveness to world social events. It holds a noticeable advantage over other Brazilian cities on aspects such as literacy, number of books read per year, wealth distribuition and longevity rates.

 

Economy

 

The gaucho capital has a privileged location. A strategic point within Mercosur, Porto Alegre is the geographical center of the major routes of the Southern Cone and it is located at equivalent distance both from Buenos Aires and Montevideo, as well as from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro cities. Whoever arrives there meets an important business center and the gateway to the major tourist attractions in the region.

 

According to the IBGE/2004, the PIB of Porto Alegre is of R$ 15.944.201.000 and its PIB per capita is of R$ 11.257. According to the English consultancy Jones Lang LaSalle (2004), Portp Alegre is in second place in rural output and industrialist between the Brazilian cities. By its geographical position, the city is defined as the capital of the South American Common Market. Tourism is not an a lot area taken advantage of for the economy of the city. Very it has been discussed about the revitalização of the Quay of the Port, that would encourage the tourism in the region

 

 

Language

 

Portuguese language is the official language of schools. But English language and Spanish language are part of the official high school curriculum.

 

 

Colleges and universities

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS);

Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS);

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), and more others.

Fundação Faculdade Federal de Ciências Médicas de Porto Alegre (FFFCMPA)

 

Transportation

 

Airport

With 37.6 thousand square meters of constructed area and four levels, the passenger terminal at Salgado Filho International Airport can receive 28 large airplanes simultaneously. The terminal has 32 check-in counters, ten boarding bridges, nine elevators and ten escalators. It has a totally automated aircraft movement control center and the main spaces are air conditioned.

 

Sea Port

 

Port of Porto Alegre. In the margin West of the lake Guaíba, is situated the port of Port Cheer Up. His geographical position enables a permanent traffic between Port Cheer Up and Buenos Aires, transporting steel-industry products and mainly agricultural produce

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State of Paraná

 

Curitiba

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curitiba

 

Curitiba is the capital city of the Brazilian state of Paraná. In 2005 its population was approximately 1,757,904 people. Its metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities2 with a total population of over 3.2 million (2006 IBGE estimate).1 Curitiba is the largest and one of the most important cities of Southern Brazil, being a cultural, political and economic center. Curitiba's main airport Afonso Pena International Airport is one of the most modern Brazilian terminals and the second most important airport in Southern Brazil.

 

The city is on a plateau 932 m (3107 ft) above sea level. It is 105 km (65 miles) west of the sea port of Paranaguá

 

Curitiba officially became a town in 1842. Growth was based on the cattle trade, being half way between cattle breeding country to the South and markets to the North. Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians. The Universidade Federal do Paraná (Federal University of Paraná), the first in Brazil, was established in Curitiba in 1913, the same year in which electric streetcars were first deployed.

 

Urban Planning

 

Curitiba has a master planned transportation system, which includes lanes on major streets devoted to a bus rapid transit system. The system, used by 85% of Curitiba's population, is the source of inspiration for the TransMilenio in Bogotá, Colombia, as well as the Orange Line of Los Angeles, California, and for a future transportation system in Panama City, Panama. The city has also paid careful attention to preserving and caring for its green areas, boasting 54 m² of green space per inhabitant.

 

 

Rio de Janeiro STATE

 

Rio de Janeiro is one of the 26 states of Brazil. It is located in the Brazilian geopolitical region of the Southeast (assigned by IBGE) and its boundaries, all of them with other Brazilian states in the Southeast region, are with Minas Gerais (N and NW), Espírito Santo (NE) and São Paulo (SW), and plus its shore line, in the Atlantic Ocean, to its East and South.

 

Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653km² and its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro. The state's most populous cities are Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo, São João de Meriti, Campos dos Goytacazes, Petrópolis and Volta Redonda. Its principal rivers are the Guandu River, the Piraí, the Paraíba do Sul, the Macaé and the Muriaé. It's climate is considered to be tropical. Rio de Janeiro is made up of two distinct morphological areas: a Plain, known as baixada, and a Plateau, which are disposed parallelly from the shoreline to the country side (towards Minas Gerais).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amazon

 

Brazil's Amazon dam project moves ahead

Mon Jul 9, 10:47 PM ET

 

RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil - Regulators granted preliminary approval Monday to a massive Amazon dam project praised by business leaders as a way to prevent possible energy shortages but criticized by environmentalists as a potential environmental disaster. The approval by the Ibama national environmental protection agency means companies can soon begin bidding to construct the project, which would generate electricity and allow barges to navigate 2,600 miles to upstream tributaries in Peru and Bolivia. Other permits must also be obtained before the multiple dam project gets under way, but Monday's move was a key regulatory step and is sure to prompt big construction companies to line up to participate in the project expected to cost 20 billion to 28 billion reals ($10 billion to $14.7 billion).

 

Ibama imposed a series of 33 restrictions designed to reduce the dams' impact on the environment and to help relocate Brazilians living in the area whose homes would be swamped, according to the government's Agencia Brasil news agency. The government hopes to complete the Santo Antonio and Jirau dams on the Madeira River, a major Amazon tributary, by 2012 to generate electricity for Latin America's largest nation and economy. When finished, they are expected to produce 6,450 megawatts, or 8 percent of Brazil's current electricity demand. "The government's decision is to build a model Brazilian hydroelectric project from scratch," said acting Mines and Energy Minister Nelson Hubner.

 

While President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and business leaders say the dams are necessary to fuel strong demand for electricity, the dams would flood hundreds of square miles in one of the Amazon's most pristine areas. Critics worry about the destruction of wildlife and rain forest, as well as problems from pollutants and parasites. Experts from the National Institute for Amazon Research, or INPA, have said the area to be flooded by the Jirau could be nearly twice the estimated 204 square miles and extend into neighboring Bolivia — prompting periodic protests from the Bolivian government. The dams could lead to the extinction of ecologically and economically important fish species, blocking upstream migrations of adult fish and grinding up most larva and fry heading downstream, environmentalists say. Other potential problems include the increase of malaria-carrying mosquitoes, the advance of soy plantations into the rain forest and the impact of mercury discarded into the river by gold miners, which could make its way into the food chain and affect Amazon residents who survive on fish.

 

The Amazon River basin covers 60 percent of Brazil. Although the government says destruction of Amazon rain forest has fallen to its lowest rate since 1991, experts say as much as 20 percent of the forest's 1.6 million square miles has already been destroyed by development, logging and farming. Likely bidders for the project include leading Brazilian construction firms Norberto Odebrecht SA and Camargo Correa SA, Brazil's Agencia Estado news agency reported.

 

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